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SK Dept of Highways Additional Safety Guidelines

The Saskatchewan Department of Highways will be looking for the following guidelines to be used by roadbuilding companies on Highways jobsites:

BACKING UP

Job Description

This guideline describes backing up of vehicles and equipment.

Hazard Identification

Personal Injury
• Crushing, muscle pull/strain, pinch points, slip, trip and fall.

Vehicle/Equipment
• Equipment accidents/incidents, struck-by.

Environmental
• Visibility, weather.

Blind Spots
• Know the Blind Spots: (Blind Spots indicated in Shaded Areas)

Practices

1. Pre-Job Planning
1.1 Ensure that workers are properly trained, certified (where applicable) and competently supervised.
1.2 Ensure that Traffic Accommodation and Traffic Control Plans are readily available and on site.
1.3 Identify any special hazards and controls.
1.4 Review emergency plan.
2. Toolbox Meeting
2.1 A pre-job toolbox meeting and documentation is required to ensure that workers understand work assignments, traffic control plans, traffic accommodation plans and hazards.
2.2  Additional toolbox meetings and documentation will be necessary when hazards, conditions or activities change.
3.  Circle Check
3.1  Complete circle check and documentation.
3.2  Each operator conducts a circle check on equipment being operated to detect equipment deficiencies and ensure that all horns, lights and back up alarms and other safety devices are in good working condition and turned on. Advise the supervisor/foreman of any repairs or deficiencies that need to be fixed or that the equipment needs to be removed from operation until repairs can be made.
3.3  The operator should only perform repairs or adjustments that they can perform competently and have other repairs performed by a qualified/competent person.
4. Know Your Surroundings
4.1 Avoid backing up where possible. Try to arrange for drive-through operations to reduce the need for vehicles to back up.
4.2  When you must back up do a walk around of your vehicle to ensure there are no hidden hazards in your blind spots. Be sure the area is clear before you begin backing up.
4.3  If at all possible you should do your backing operation while you are still familiar with the surroundings and before anything can come in behind you.
4.4 Always look when backing up using both mirrors to maintain constant visual awareness of your surroundings.
4.5  At the same time remember that you must also check to the front and both sides. Although what is behind you is important, where the front of your vehicle is moving when you back is also important.
4.6  If sight is restricted or obstructed while backing up use a signaler/guide. The signaler/guide must be clearly visible to the driver at all times. If the signaler/guide is not visible, stop immediately.
4.7 As a habit, back in and drive out whenever possible. This allows the driver to examine the area to be backed into as the vehicle approaches it.

5.  Back Slowly
5.1 Never back up at a speed faster than a brisk walk.  This allows you to stop almost immediately if something enters your path of travel.
6.  Keep Backing Distance To A Minimum
6.1  If backing up is necessary keep the backing distance to a minimum.
7.  Keep Work Area Clear
7.1  Eliminate backing up by the use of turn arounds and other traffic patterns to reduce congestion.
7.2  Remain in the cab if possible in areas where other equipment is likely to be backing up.
8.  Ensure Communication Is Clear
8.1  Whenever possible, use a signaler/guide.
8.2  Ensure signaler/guide and operator understand voice and hand signals.
8.3  If a collision occurs the operator is responsible.
9. Ground Workers / Foot Traffic
9.1  Reduce foot traffic in backing up areas as much as possible.  Consider the posting of restricted areas.
9.2  Where feasible a barricade or roped off area may be used to help protect the workers on foot.
9.3  Make eye contact with the driver or operator before approaching equipment.
9.4  Avoid standing and talking near vehicle paths, grading operations, and other activities where heavy equipment is moving back and forth.
10.  Backing Equipment with Attachments
10.1  Ensure attachments (i.e. brooms, mouldboards, packers, blowers, spray bars) are safely positioned and path of travel is clear while backing and turning.
10.2  Know and understand turning radius of equipment with attachments on.
11.  Backing up a Trailer
11.1  Line the trailer up with the area you wish to back into while moving ahead.
11.2 Ensure back up path is clear; do walk around if you are uncertain.
11.3  Backup as slowly as possible, constantly checking both mirrors.
11.4  When looking in the mirror, sight down the side of the truck and the trailer to keep them lined up.
11.5  Steer accordingly for direction of travel of the trailer.  Do not over-steer. Pull ahead if the trailer drifts too far and start again.
12.  Signaler/Guide Responsibilities
12.1  Signaler/guide should be used in areas of heavy traffic and must be positioned in a secure area with a clear view of the intended path of travel for vehicles or equipment.
12.2  Ensure signaler/guide and operator understand all necessary voice and hand signals.
12.3  Ensure that proper Personal Protective Equipment and other required equipment are used.
12.4  Establish position so that operator and signaler/guide maintain eye-to-eye contact throughout the backing operation.
12.5  Keep a safe distance from equipment and other objects while guiding.
12.6  Understand the maneuvering limitations of vehicles and equipment.

Personal Protective Equipment

• As required by Contractor Safety Policy.

Tools / Equipment

• As required by Contractor Safety Policy.

Related Safe Operating Guidelines

List relevant Contractor S.O.G.s that are available, such as:

• Working around Overhead Power Lines
• Working Around Ground Workers
• Pilot Vehicle Operation
• Sweeping Operation

Date S.O.G. Prepared:    June 9, 2006

Date S.O.G. Revised:

Working Around Ground Workers

Job Description

This guideline describes safe equipment operation around workers on foot.

Hazard Identification

Personal Injury

• Crushing, muscle pull/strain, pinch points, eye, slip, trip and fall.

Vehicle/Equipment
• Equipment accidents/incidents, struck-by.

Environmental
• Visibility, weather.

Blind Spots
• Know the Blind Spots: (Blind Spots indicated in Shaded Areas)

Practices

1. Pre-Job Planning
1.1 Prepare the Traffic Control Plan with the intent of keeping ground workers separated from vehicles and equipment as much as possible.
1.1.1 Design the work space to eliminate or decrease backing up and blind spots.
1.2 Plan the scheduling of work tasks to keep ground workers out of areas where equipment will be used.

2. Training and Toolbox Meetings
2.1 A pre-job toolbox meeting and documentation is required to ensure that workers understand work assignments and Traffic Control Plans.
2.2 Identify and communicate any special hazards and controls to all workers.
2.3 Train subcontractors, crews, operators, and truck drivers to understand any symbols, markers, and colors used to separate workers on foot from equipment within the work space.
2.4 Train workers on foot and equipment operators in appropriate communication methods (e.g. using hand signals and maintaining visual contact) to be used when workers on foot are required to be in the same area as equipment.
2.5 Train equipment operators never to move equipment without making positive visual contact with any workers on foot near the equipment.
2.6  Additional toolbox meetings and documentation will be necessary when hazards, conditions or activities change.
3.  In the Work Area, and During Work 
3.1 Where feasible, channelize the routes that equipment uses in the work area and keep ground workers out of these areas.
3.2 As part of the Traffic Control Plan, the contractor should show how he plans to protect ground workers from hazards. This plan could include markings where feasible.
3.3 Review all activities where equipment and ground workers are in close proximity in order to identify potential hazards. Adjust the plan accordingly if problems occur.

Personal Protective Equipment

• As required by Contractor Safety Policy

Tools / Equipment

• As required by Contractor Safety Policy.

Related Safe Operating Guidelines

List relevant Contractor S.O.G.s that are available, such as:

• Backing Up
• Pilot Vehicle Operation
• Sweeping Operation


Date S.O.G. Prepared:    June 9, 2006

Date S.O.G. Revised:

Pilot Vehicle Operation

Job Description

This guideline describes safe methods of operating a pilot vehicle for traffic guidance.

Hazard Identification

Personal Injury
• Crushing, muscle pull/strain, slip, trip and fall.

Vehicle/Equipment
• Equipment accidents/incidents, struck-by.

Environmental
• Visibility, weather.

Practices

1. Pre-Job Planning
1.1 Field assessment of the area to be piloted should be done to develop a Traffic Control Plan, and to determine acceptable turn around areas.  The plan and route should be documented and communicated to all Pilot Vehicle drivers and to the involved flaggers.
1.2 A vehicle circle check of the Pilot Vehicle should be completed before use.  Any deficiencies should be brought to the attention of the supervisor so repairs can be scheduled.
1.3 The Pilot Vehicle shall be equipped with a rotating or flashing light, a pair of red flags and a CS-32 sign stating “Pilot Vehicle – Follow Me.”
1.4 A communication system should be in place with the flag people – radio, hand signals etc.
1.5 A rotation should be established to switch or relieve drivers to prevent fatigue / exhaustion.
1.6 No passengers should be in the pilot vehicle while piloting traffic unless for training or transportation purposes.
1.7 The Traffic Accommodation Supervisor shall ensure appropriate work zone signing is in place.


2. Operating Practices
2.1 The Construction Supervisor or Traffic Accommodation Supervisor shall coordinate the Pilot Vehicle activities with flagging operations at each end of the piloted section.
2.1.1 The desirable maximum waiting time when stopping and holding motorists in a queue at a work area is 6 to 10 minutes.
2.2 The flagger releases the queue of vehicles when the Pilot Vehicle is ready to escort the traffic through the work area.
2.3 The Pilot Vehicle shall not travel faster than 60 km per hour and should reduce speed when passing workers and / or equipment.
2.4 When a flagger is holding a queue of vehicles at a flag station, no vehicles will be allowed to jump that queue and bypass the line of vehicles. This includes all construction vehicles and trucks loaded with material.
2.5 As the Pilot Vehicle approaches the flagger holding the queue of oncoming traffic, the driver should:
2.5.1 Slow down, and move to the right side of the road if possible.
2.5.2 Stop on the shoulder at least 35 metres in advance of the flagger. 
2.5.3 Release the traffic in a safe manner, coordinating with the flagger.
2.5.4 Turn around safely, proceed to pick up and guide the adjacent traffic queue.
3. Flagger Positioning:
3.1 The first flagger will normally be on the right shoulder, stopping traffic in the lane. 
3.2 The Pilot Vehicle guides traffic to the second flagger at the end of the piloting zone, who is situated on the opposite side of the road, with his back to the Pilot Vehicle, holding the oncoming lane of traffic.

Personal Protective Equipment

• As required by Contractor Safety Policy.

Tools / Equipment

• As required by Contractor Safety Policy.

Related Safe Operating Guidelines

List relevant Contractor S.O.G.s that are available, such as:

• Backing Up
• Working around Overhead Power Lines
• Working Around Ground Workers
• Sweeping Operation

Date S.O.G. Prepared:    June 9, 2006

Date S.O.G. Revised:

Sweeping Operation

Job Description

This guideline describes the removal of various loose materials from the road surface with a power broom.

Hazard Identification

Personal Injury
• Crushing, muscle pull/strain, pinch points, eye, slip, trip and fall.

Vehicle/Equipment
• Equipment accident/incident, entanglement, hydraulic failure, struck-by.

Environmental
• Dust, visibility, weather, working alone, flying debris.

Practices

1. Pre-Job Planning
1.1 Equipment operator must be familiar with and adhere to Traffic Accommodation and Work Zone Traffic Plans.
1.2 Operators must be competent for units or vehicles they are operating.
1.3 All appropriate Personal Protective Equipment must be worn and dust masks or breathing devices should be worn by operators and flaggers.
2. Toolbox Meeting
2.1 A pre-job toolbox meeting and documentation is required to ensure that workers understand work assignments, traffic control plans, traffic accommodation plans and hazards.
2.2  Additional toolbox meetings and documentation will be necessary when hazards, conditions or activities change.
3.  Circle Check
3.1  Complete circle check and documentation.
3.2 Each operator conducts a circle check on equipment being operated to detect equipment deficiencies and ensure that all horns, lights and back up alarms and other safety devices are in good working condition and turned on. Advise the supervisor/foreman of any repairs or deficiencies that need to be fixed or that the equipment needs to be removed from operation until repairs can be made.
3.3  The operator should only perform repairs or adjustments that they can perform competently and have other repairs performed by a qualified/competent person.

4. Sweeping Equipment Requirements
4.1 Ensure all components are working properly before commencing work.
4.2 Ensure doors/windows are secured open or closed position at all times.
4.3 Make sure that each piece of equipment has an audible operational back up alarm. 
4.4 Ensure bristle length is adequate for duration of job.
4.5 Ensure fluorescent flags are in position in front of or on the broom mechanism.
4.6 Ensure unit displays slow moving sign on back of unit.
4.7 Ensure unit is equipped with seat belts.
4.8 Check communication equipment is available.
4.9 Ensure headlights, 4-way flashers and rotary lights are functional.
5. Sweeping Practices
5.1 Assess sweeping area, traffic and wind conditions. Plan sweeping operations to minimize visibility problems.
5.2  If there is a problem with visibility, water may be used to control dust.
5.3 Flag person(s) must be used to control traffic while sweeping. A pilot vehicle may be required as well.
5.3.1 On low volume, two-way highways, 1 flagger in radio contact with the sweeper may be sufficient. The flagger holds traffic in the lane the dust is crossing while sweeping occurs.  During the sweeping operation if traffic approaches the sweeper, the operator should cease sweeping until traffic is clear.
5.3.2 On medium volume, two-way highways, 2 flaggers in radio contact should stop all traffic while sweeping occurs.
5.3.3 On high volume, two-way highways, 2 flaggers and a pilot vehicle may be required.
5.3.4 On four lane highways, a flagger(s), pilot vehicle(s), light boards and delineators may be required. 
5.4 When flag person(s) and a pilot vehicle are required.
5.4.1  Make sure the flag person(s), pilot vehicle operator and equipment operator understand all necessary signals and safety precautions.
5.4.2    Sweeping should not commence until the flag person or pilot vehicle operator communicates that the work zone is clear of traffic.
5.5  Understand the maneuvering limitations of vehicles and equipment, such as:
5.5.1   At the end of the sweep area, when the broom equipment turns around to commence the next sweeping pass.
5.5.2 When backing up, turning around on road or parking on approaches.
5.6   Stay alert to recognize and deal with dangerous situations.
5.7  Ensure all sweeping operations are completed prior to sunset.
5.8 Leave public awareness signs up as long as required.

Personal Protective Equipment

• As required by Contractor Safety Policy.


Tools / Equipment

• As required by Contractor Safety Policy.


Related Safe Operating Guidelines

List relevant Contractor S.O.G.s that are available, such as:

• Backing Up
• Working around Overhead Power Lines
• Working Around Ground Workers
• Pilot Vehicle Operation


Date S.O.G. Prepared:    June 9, 2006

Date S.O.G. Revised:


Working Around Overhead Power Lines

Job Description

This guideline describes safe methods of working around overhead power lines.

Hazard Identification

Personal Injury
• Electrical contact – death, burns, disability, dismemberment.

Vehicle/Equipment
• Overhead lines – equipment damage, fire, explosion.

Environmental
• Weather conditions – wet, windy, temperature extremes.

Practices

1. Pre-Job Planning
1.1 Before work begins, all power line locations are to be identified. The Contractor is responsible to contact the power company, provide and install warning devices, and communicate potential hazards to the workers.
1.2 All workers who operate machinery or equipment that could come in contact with power lines should look up and check for overhead power lines before beginning work.
1.3 Height of power lines should be obtained from the power company or surveyors.
1.4 Erect proper warning signs before work begins under or near the power line.
1.5 Maximum height of truck boxes shall be displayed on the front left corner of the truck box.

 

2. Limits of Approach
2.1 When operating machinery or equipment in close proximity to power lines, always maintain the limits of approach: 3–6 metres, depending on the voltage. For safe working distances, see the table below.
2.2 When excavating around a power pole, stay at least 2 metres from the pole at ground level and angle the excavation away from the pole as you go down.
2.3 Following are the minimum clearances for known power line voltages, from Saskatchewan OHS Regulations (1996) Appendix Table 22: These clearances are measured as the radius around the conductor.
Risk Factor Column 1 Column 2 Column 3
Voltage Phase to Phase Voltage to Ground Non-Electrical Workers, Material and Equipment Qualified Electrical Workers Vehicles and Load Traveling – movement down roadway where work tasks are not being performed
kV kV Metres Metres Metres
230 133 6.1 1.4 1.83
138 79.8 4.6 1 1.22
72 41.6 4.6 0.6 0.8
25 14.4 3 0.3 0.6
15 8.6 3 0.3 0.6
4.16 2.4 3 0.15 0.6

2.3.1 OHS Regulation 465 (2):  …no worker works, no material is piled, stored or handled, no scaffold is erected or dismantled and no equipment or powered mobile equipment is used or operated within the minimum distance set out in Column 1 of Table 22 above.
2.3.2 OHS Regulation 465 (6):  …no part of a vehicle is operated on a public road, highway, street, lane or alley within the minimum distance set out in Column 3 of Table 22 above, and that no part of a vehicle’s load comes within the minimum distance.


3. Power Line Identification

Following are guidelines for pole and kV identification.

 


One pole – 14.4 kV    One pole – 120 / 240 kV One Pole – 25 kV

 


One pole – 72 kV  Steel Tower – 130 – 230 kV 2 Poles 72 – 138 – 230 kV

4. Operating Practices
4.1 No person shall approach or operate heavy equipment within 6 m of a power line of unknown voltage unless directed by a competent utility employee.
4.2 If the work area has the potential for equipment to come in contact with power lines because it would not be possible to keep this distance, the power company can be contacted to de-energize or reroute the circuit or provide guarding.  Do not proceed until the power company has given written assurance defining proper safeguards.
4.3 If the required distance cannot be maintained, then alternative plans for dumping material, such as dumping before and after the power line, must be developed and implemented. If the truck dumps directly under the line, they are not to raise their boxes as high as normal and a Spotter must be used.
4.4 Assign a worker to act as a Spotter to ensure that the required clearance is maintained. The Spotter shall monitor equipment and material movement and give an instant STOP signal to the equipment operator when the equipment or load is too close to the electrical conductor.
4.5 The Spotter must abide by the following:
4.5.1 Review and know the limits of approach outlined above.
4.5.2 Review and know the prearranged signals with equipment operators and truck drivers.
4.5.3 Review and know the heights of truck boxes when fully raised.
4.5.4 Review and know the heights of overhead power lines on the project.
4.5.5 Be positioned at limits of approach from the truck and in clear view of driver.
4.5.6 If available, use radio contact with equipment operators.
4.6 When lifts of material are placed underneath power lines this reduces the clearance. A review of the clearances after each lift should take place. 
4.7 Operate the equipment at a slower-than-normal rate in the vicinity of power lines.
4.8 Never park equipment in the vicinity of power lines.

5. Ground Worker Positioning:
5.1 All ground workers and Spotters must stay at least 10 metres away from equipment operating in the vicinity of power lines because if it contacts an energized line the electricity will go to ground.

6. In The Case Of Power Line Contact:
6.1 The Operator should STAY IN the cab or on the equipment and remain calm.
6.1.1 If you have to leave the equipment because of an emergency, jump clear of the equipment landing with feet together in upright position, and SHUFFLE OR HOP with feet together, DON’T STEP. 
6.2 This is a reportable Dangerous Occurrence – Saskatchewan Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (1996), section 9.  Contact the power company, project supervisor and manager immediately, and determine who will contact Department of Labour.
6.3 The following applies to ground workers.
6.3.1 When there are downed lines remember that there may be dangers you can’t see in the immediate area. Your job is to stay away and secure the area to keep others safely away.
6.3.2 If you are on energized ground and need to move away, you can avoid electric shock or electrocution by making sure there is no space between your feet. Shuffle your feet while moving out of the energized area. When shuffling, keep your feet touching. Do Not Take Steps. 
6.3.3 10 Metres To Safety.  Stay back at least 10 metres from any contacted equipment or downed power line.
6.3.3.1 Depending on voltage of downed power line, this distance may increase up to 32 metres.
6.3.4 Contact the power company, project supervisor and manager immediately and be sure to specifically mention the downed wire situation.

Personal Protective Equipment

• As required by Contractor Safety Policy.


Tools / Equipment

• As required by Contractor Safety Policy.


Related Safe Operating Guidelines

List relevant Contractor S.O.G.s that are available, such as:

• Backing Up
• Working Around Ground Workers
• Pilot Vehicle Operation
• Sweeping Operation


Date S.O.G. Prepared:    June 9, 2006

Date S.O.G. Revised:

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